Research on gender and politics is becoming increasingly mainstreamed within political science. To document this process, we introduce a comprehensive dataset of articles published in 37 political science journals through 2019 that can be considered “gender and politics” research. While a recent related literature has explored the descriptive representation of women in political science by examining authorship and citation patterns, we argue that the identification of publications substantively focused on gender and politics not only illuminates trends but can contribute to broader conversations about substantive representation and methodological diversity in the discipline. The paper highlights the theoretical challenges of identifying “gender and politics” research and analyzes major trends in the substantive representation of gender in the journals over time. This dataset will be useful to scholars who are interested in the evolution of salient topics in gender and politics research and patterns of citation.